Posts Tagged ‘Local-Global’


Reporters Without Borders: Dictators Quoting Trump in Press Crackdowns

The image of the United States as a bastion of freedom seems to have done a 180-degree turn, with authoritarian regimes around the planet now quoting President Trump as they crack down on free speech and press, warns media watchdog group Reporters Without Borders.

The group makes this observation as 234 Americans face severe criminal penalties after they were rounded up at the Inauguration Day protests in Washington, D.C., in January, putting a chill on protected speech and the right to assemble. Many of Trump’s counterparts approve of such crackdowns. Listening to these leaders’ anti-media tirades, one can easily imagine the same words coming from Trump.

Thailand’s Prime Minister mentioned “fake reports and hate speech” in his recent announcement of a crackdown on the media.

President Donald J. Trump and First Lady Melania Trump pose for photos with Thailand Prime Minister, Pryut Chan-o-Cha and his wife Assoc. Prof. Madam Naraporn Chan-o-Cha in the Oval Office at the White House, Monday, October 2, 2017, in Washington, D.C. (Official White House Photo by Shealah Craighead)

“I don’t want to make enemies. But society needs to function in an orderly fashion,” the Bangkok Post quotes Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha, leader of the military junta that took over the nation in a coup in 2014. “No matter who you are, if you twist the facts, write what is not true or incite hatred, you will face legal action.”

Cambodia’s Prime Minister Hun Sen, meanwhile, has voiced bilious support for Trump’s attacks on CNN. The long-serving leader has been busy shutting down media outlets like the Cambodia Daily ahead of the nation’s 2018 general elections.

“CNN deserves the rantings of President Donald Trump,” said the former Khmer Rouge official. “His rantings are right. I would like to send a message to the president that your attack on CNN is right. American media is very bad.”

Dictators Cozy Up to Trump and His ‘Fake News’

Reporters Without Borders sees a clear danger to American democracy and the resulting global ripples of Trump’s all-out assault on facts and the free press. This could be the first time the United States has reversed course and found itself encouraging rather than discouraging dictators from stifling freedoms.

“The phenomenon of ‘fake news’ is a serious one—both at the national and international level,” Margaux Ewen, advocacy and communications director for the group’s North America Bureau, told me in a recent interview. “Opponents of press freedom all over the world have used the term to silence and discredit the media. They have even gone so far as to quote statements from President Trump to support and justify their misdirected policies and draconian laws.

“Authoritarian regimes all over the world can now take full advantage of this anti-media stance by discrediting mainstream news coverage and calling it ‘fake news.’ There are serious global implications of President Trump’s stance against the media.”

U.S. Reporter Faces 70 Years in Prison…for Reporting

The 234 defendants, or the “J20,” as they’re being called, include Santa Fe, N.M.-based journalist Aaron

Cantú. He was rounded up en masse during the Inauguration Day arrests while reporting on the ground, and now faces 70 years behind bars. Reporters Without Borders is watching his case with deep concern about the future of America’s press freedoms.

 

“At the time of his arrest in January, we publicly admonished his arrest and charges,” Ewen told me. “No journalist should be arrested and charged with a criminal offense for simply doing their job covering a protest.”

Big Moment for Democracy as Reporter Goes to Trial

Cantú emailed me this statement as he prepares his defense against the sort of crackdown we are used to seeing done only by authoritarian regimes.

“While I appreciate the outsized attention my case has gotten because of my profession, the entirety of the J20 prosecution is a watershed moment for how the state conceives of and persecutes political activism in the Trump era. These mass trials confirm some of the worst fears about a so-called law-and-order presidential administration that is hypersensitive to criticism, and should be watched closely by anybody concerned with the direction of this country.”

‘No Easy Fix’ for U.S. Press Freedom

Once America jumps down that anti-media rabbit hole, it’s going to be an epic struggle to get out of it, says Reporters Without Borders.

“Unfortunately, there is no easy fix for this erosion of trust in the media,” said Ewen.

Ewen says Americans need to become more media savvy, which may be too big a hurdle.

“Double checking sources and facts, consuming news from established and unbiased outlets, and running the story by a few different sources are just a few ways to verify the information available to the reader,” said Ewen.

Ultimately, though, the future of press freedom is in the hands of the man at the top. Unless he changes course, Trump could do lasting damage to American democracy, said Ewen.

“Until President Trump learns to accept criticism from the media and starts respecting the First Amendment, press freedom in the U.S. will continue to be undermined, putting American democracy at risk.”

 

The 2016 US Election and Global Journalism

American journalists and journalism prof Dan Gillmor gave the keynote address to the Congress of Journalists of Catalonia (Spain) last week. He chose as his theme free speech, the Donald Trump victory and the need for journalists to be activists.

And please note, this is a speech about a basic American value: Freedom of Speech/Press, presented by an American to a Spanish group of journalists. This is a discussion that is not limited to the States.

You can read the whole speech at Gillmor’s website.

Here are some key points:

I have three goals this morning.

First, to give you my impressions of how journalism performed during this election campaign. The short answer is that journalism failed, with some exceptions.

My second goal is to help you understand why I believe the Trump presidency could well be a turning point – a negative one – for free speech and other fundamental liberties in my country. That would have impact far beyond our shores.

Finally, I want to ask journalists – here and in America and everywhere – to be activists.

Activists for freedom of expression, among the liberties that are at the core of societies where freedom is an institution, not just a word.

Activists for media literacy, the foundation of which is critical thinking.


Our media organizations helped create the climate for someone like Trump to succeed. They’ve been selling fear for decades. For example, in America, at a time the lowest crime rates in many decades, our media have persuaded the public that the risk of being a victim is higher than ever. The risk of any individual person in America becoming a victim is terrorism is exceedingly low, but our media have persuaded the public that the opposite is true.


Trump drew audiences, which boosted ratings, and advertisers sent money. The head of CBS, one of the US media companies that profited wildly from Trump, will be infamous forever for what he said at a business conference early this year: “The money’s rolling in and this is fun. I’ve never seen anything like this, and this going to be a very good year for us. Sorry. It’s a terrible thing to say. But, bring it on, Donald. Keep going.”

This leader of business said, most infamously, “It may not be good for America, but it’s damn good for CBS.”

If American journalism dies in the next few years, those words should be carved on the tombstone marking the grave.


I emphasize that there was some great work. In fact, if you compiled all the excellent campaign journalism, you’d have a long list–including some work from newer online outlets–that would make you proud as a journalist. But the good stuff was swamped by the flood of mediocrity and awfulness that dominated.

I want to praise one journalist in particular. David Fahrenthold of the Washington Post gave a one-man demonstration of how journalism should work. He deserves and will win a 2017 Pulitzer Prize, unless the Pulitzer judges are sound asleep when they look at his work.


Many liberties are in jeopardy, but I will focus mostly here on ones that involve freedom of speech and freedom of the press.

It is clear that Trump actually loves media – when it’s helping to promote him or his business interests. But he plainly hates actual journalism about him, and has promised to do things – and has already done some of them — that would directly and indirectly threaten what journalists do. He has sued at least one journalist not because of inaccuracies but because he wanted to punish the writer financially by forcing him and his publisher to spend money on lawyers. He’s been clear that he’ll appoint judges who might sharply restrict journalistic freedom. There is much more, but I believe it is accurate to call Trump an enemy of journalism, and now he’s in a position where he can do extraordinary damage.


Journalists have to recognize that on some issues, they have to become activists. There is no alternative.

I recognize that in many parts of this world, journalists are activists by definition—because truth telling in repressive societies is an act designed to bring about change. I’m humbled by the people who risk their freedom, and sometimes their lives, to tell their fellow citizens and the rest of the world what is happening where they live.

In the western democracies with a more robust tradition of free speech and a free press, the idea of journalists as activists is often seen as taking sides, and violating journalistic norms. But there’s a long and honorable history of what we call “advocacy journalism” exposing injustices with the goal of of bringing about change.


Free speech starts at the edges of the networks, and ultimately that is where it is heard.

And – this is so important – we need to be spreading the concept of media literacy to everyone who will listen. This is, above all, about developing skills for critical thinking – being skeptical, using judgment, asking questions, ranging widely for information; and more. People need a refuge from the misinformation, and context to understand what is really going on.

Journalists should the leading teachers of media literacy. The ones who do journalism with integrity will be among the biggest beneficiaries, because they’ll foster much more trust in their own work – and one of the things people pay for in this world is products and services they trust.


Journalists, and journalism, are under attack around the world. I wasn’t happy with President Obama’s harsh attitude toward leaks that assisted essential national security journalism. But we’ll probably look back on his tenure as a time of overt support for journalism compared to the Trump regime.

Core freedoms – of expression, association, and more – should be everyone’s right. Media literacy is everyone’s duty. Journalists, and journalism educators like me, have a duty to be their active defenders, and explainers.

Otherwise we’ll live in a world of choke points and control by others – and Donald Trump surely craves control. Otherwise we’ll live in a world where lies are as plausible as truth because the public that doesn’t know how to tell the difference – and based on this campaign that’s the world Trump prefers, too.

Kazakh Journalists Meet With Local SPJ Chapter

This item first appeared on the website of the Washington, DC, chapter of the SPJ

By Alice Ollstein

How do you distinguish between trustworthy news and propaganda? Is it ethical to accept gifts from a source? How can we keep publishing serious stories when our readers and editors are demanding clickbait?

Journalists from Kazakhstan meet with SPJ International Community Co-chair Dan Kubiske (center) and Washington, DC, SPJ board member Alice Ollstein (second from right)

Journalists from Kazakhstan meet with SPJ International Community Co-chair Dan Kubiske (center) and Washington, DC, SPJ board member Alice Ollstein (second from right)

These were some of the many questions tackled in a cross-cultural discussion in early June between SPJ members in DC and a team of four journalists from Kazakhstan who came to the U.S. on a study tour organized by the State Department. Dan Kubiske, the co-chair of the SPJ’s International Committee, and newly elected local board member Alice Ollstein represented the SPJ at the meeting.

The four Kazakh reporters, who work for various print, radio, TV and digital outlets, offered a window into their lives, including their experiences with government censorship.

“We have to use code words,” explained one. “For example, if the value of the currency is falling, we call it a ‘correction.’”

Another added she routinely gets angry calls from government officials who sometimes demand a critical story be taken down or a photo changed to one that’s more flattering. “”But at least we can post a critical report, and it will be up for a few hours before we are forced to take it down.”

Kazakhstan ranks poorly on press freedom indices by Freedom House and Reporters Without Borders. Journalists can be jailed or heavily fined for “defaming” the president or other elected officials, and dozens of reporters were charged in the last year alone. This has created an environment where outlets self-censor out of fear of legal retribution.

Kubiske told the Kazakh just about the only time reporters in the United States go to jail is to protect an anonymous source. Ollstein added denial of access is also a major problem reporters have covering the government.

Over all, the meeting focused ethical, economic, and organizational challenges that are universal to reporters in every country, from the allure of easy clickbait to the difference between the appearance of a conflict of interest and the genuine article. While the discussion revealed that what might be an ethical and normal practice in one country could be verboten in another, fairness and accuracy are valued across national borders.

Meetings such as these give U.S. journalists better insight into under-covered parts of the world and help dispel stereotypes about the U.S. and its press corp. In addition, they can foster invaluable connections and help build a strong international community of journalists all struggling for free and independent media.

Migrants: Where from, where to and local impact

Originally posted at Journalism, Journalists and the World

If you ever wondered why there is a better selection of tortillas in your local store or why getting good garam masala is suddenly much easier, the Pew Research Group has a quick way to look at immigration and emigration.

The Pew Group has a GREAT interactive graphic to look at immigrant and emigrant movements during the past 25 years at Origins and Destinations of the World’s Migrants, from 1990-2015

Along with an interactive map, the Pew Group added a table so you can see with real numbers migration movement.

I’ll let the Pew Group explain what its wonderful graphic depicts:

The figures in this interactive feature refer to the total number (or cumulative “stocks”) of migrants living around the world as of 1990, 2000, 2010 or 2015 rather than to the annual rate of migration (or current “flows”) in a given year. Since migrants have both an origin and a destination, international migrants can be viewed from two directions – as an emigrant (leaving an origin country) or as an immigrant (entering a destination country).

According to the United Nations Population Division, an international migrant is someone who has been living for one year or longer in a country other than the one in which he or she was born. This means that many foreign workers and international students are counted as migrants. Additionally, the UN considers refugees and, in some cases, their descendants (such as Palestinians born in refugee camps outside of the Palestinian territories) to be international migrants. For the purposes of this interactive feature, estimates of the number of unauthorized immigrants living in various countries also are included in the total counts. On the other hand, tourists, foreign-aid workers, temporary workers employed abroad for less than a year and overseas military personnel typically are not counted as migrants.

And for those wondering, the total number of migrants living in the United States in 2015 came from:

  1. Mexico – 12 million
  2. China – 2.1 million
  3. India – 1.9 million
  4. Philippines – 1.7 million
  5. Puerto Rico – 1.7 million
  6. Viet Nam – 1.3 million
  7. El Salvador – 1.2 million
  8. Cuba – 1.1 million
  9. South Korea – 1.1 million
  10. Dominican Republic – 940,000
  11. Guatemala – 880,000

Remember, this is the TOTAL number of people from these countries living in the United States, NOT the number arriving in 2015. And I would personally put the migration from Puerto Rico to the U.S. mainland as internal migration rather than international. (That is why I have a Top 11, rather than Top 10). Seems the United Nations has its own way of looking at these things.

And in case you are wondering, in 2015 there were 180,000 people from Iraqi living in the United States and 70,000 from Syria, both up from 40,000 each in 1990.

Local reporters can follow-up on this information for a local angle by using material from the U.S. Census Bureau.

For example, I know from the American FactFinder, there are a lot of Ethiopian restaurants in Fairfax County, Virginia (population 1.1 million) because Ethiopian immigrants are the largest African group in Fairfax – 6,000 out of 31,000 African native-born residents.

You can get good papusas because Salvadorans make up the largest single group of Latin American residents — 32,000 out of 102,000 from Latin America.

We all know Annandale, Va., is known as Little Seoul. Well, the Census numbers bear that out, of the 170,000 people born in Asia in Fairfax County, 30,000 are from Korea. But what should be evident to anyone paying attention, the Indian and Vietnamese presence is also big. Fairfax has 29,000 people who were born in Indian and 23,000 born in Vietnam.

Not to leave out Europe, but let’s face it, the numbers are weak compared to the rest of the world. Fairfax has 25,000 people born in Europe. The single largest group are the Germans with 3,600.

Bottom line, if you are looking for a foreign story, start in your own neighborhood.

Turkey moves against free press

Originally posted at Journalism, Journalists and the World as Turkey Takes Dark Turn.

Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdogan has always had a thin skin and low tolerance for anyone criticizing him. He has now taken the dramatic step of not only attacking a newspaper that has regularly opposed his actions, but Erdogan ordered the paper seized by the government. (See list of articles below.)

The take over is just another in a series of actions by Erdogan and his government that has earned Turkey a status not having free media from Freedom House.

According to the Freedom House report, news organizations that criticized the Erdogan government were harassed and often individual journalists were targeted with death threats.

In its report on Turkey, Freedom House laid out the steady decline of press freedom in Turkey ever since Erdogan became a national leader — prime minister and now president:

The government enacted new laws that expanded both the state’s power to block websites and the surveillance capability of the National Intelligence Organization (MİT). Journalists faced unprecedented legal obstacles as the courts restricted reporting on corruption and national security issues. The authorities also continued to aggressively use the penal code, criminal defamation laws, and the antiterrorism law to crack down on journalists and media outlets.

turkey_5years_capture_updated-445x480All this happens while the Turkish constitution claims free press is a guarantee. Unfortunately for the Turkish media, the government has pushed through a number of laws that get supported by the courts, all in the name of fighting terrorism.

Press freedom in Turkey has been in a steady decline for the past five years. The latest move by Erdogan is perhaps the most blatant attack on free press.

The highly popular Zaman was taken over by the government when police raided the offices late Friday, March 4. The paper was only barely able to get its last indpendent edition out before the takeover.

Zaman was tied to Erdogan former ally and now political foe Fethullah Gulen. The two had a falling out as Erdogan moved toward a more militant Islamic style government. Gulen — who lives in the United States in self-imposed exile — preaches a tolerant Islam and promotes dialogue among Christianity, Judaism and Islam, the so-called Faiths of the Book.

The latest Freedom House report of political freedom puts Turkey in the PARTLY FREE category, but with a downward trend. It is nestled in with other PARTLY FREE societies such as Zambia, Tanzania and Nicaragua.

Now, why should we, in the United States, care about what goes on in Turkey.

There is the basic humanitarian issue, that people should have political freedom and with it, press freedom. But on a larger issue, Turkey controls the Bosporus Strait. Through this narrow strip of water millions of dollars of goods flow in an out of the Black Sea. If turkey were to take a dislike to a country, it could prevent vessels bound to/from that from passing through.

Then there is the refugee issue. Thousands of Middle East refugees pass through Turkey on their way to Greece and western Europe. The European Union needs help in dealing with this complicated humanitarian issue.

And, Turkey is a member of NATO. It is bound to North America and western Europe by treaty. What Turkey does inside its own borders has a direct impact on U.S. foreign policy — diplomatic and military. It is a vital partner in the fight against ISIS and in dealing with the Syrian civil war.

If the Turkish government shuts down the independent media, then the only way the rest of the world will know what is going on in that country will be what the government wants the world to know. Given the volatility of the region and important role Turkey plays in the area, we need to know as much as possible about not only what the government is thinking but also the reactions of the country’s citizenry.

Articles about the take over of Zaman:

Connecting the globe: Cities Deal With Extremists

Great story on NPR Morning Edition this morning (3/1/16) on how the US State Department is bringing together municipal leaders from around the world to talk about dealing with extremists.

Communities Encouraged To Share Ways To Combat Extremists

The State Department is embracing a new approach: It’s invited community leaders from around the world to Washington to compare notes about the best ways to counter extremism on a grassroots level.

What is especially great about this effort, is that the State Department is trying to get municipal leaders in the United States and other countries to learn from each other. The department is actually trying to build a local-global connection.

This is an excellent first step. Now, the State Department just needs to step up its efforts to help more Americans understand there are also local-global relationships in a whole lot of areas other than security. (Think, economic development, social programs and cultural activities.)

Summary of 2015 censorship efforts from China

China Digital News has a good summary of reports looking at censorship in China.

Censoring the Media at Home and Abroad

The part American reporters should pay attention to is the part on Beijing’s efforts to control media outside China.

 

IEJ16 Program Call

The national SPJ office is asking for ideas for the 2016 national convention, with a deadline of Jan. 27.

So, let’s show the rest of the SPJ there are international issues that affect them in America’s heartland.

Here is a link to the announcement: WANTED: Your Programming Ideas!

Post your ideas on our SLACK account. Let’s toss ideas back and forth and come up with two or three REALLY good ideas that the EIJ16 organizers can’t ignore.

Some successful programs in the past:

  • Understanding Al Jazeera
  • Defining and dealing with self-censorship (Video link between conference and Hong Kong)
  • Grant and study opportunities overseas
  • Why press freedom issues around the world are important to Americans

 

Journalism codes of ethics from around the world

Many thanks to the Donald W. Reynolds Journalism Institute and The Ethical Journalism Network for putting together Accountable Journalism a database of journalism codes of ethics from around the world. (See note below.)

The group admits it is not yet a full directory of codes and asks for contributions from other journalists and journalism organizations.

This database is very much still a work in process and far from comprehensive! Through our crowd-sourcing initiative we are asking media professionals to send us their respective code of ethics or an update to contact@accountablejournalism.org.

And why is it good to know about other codes?

There is a greater need to know and understand ethics in an increasingly global world and the nuances between different cultures. While media policies may differ between news organizations and certain ethical topics are colored in shades of grey, the core concepts of accuracy, independence, impartiality, accountability, and showing humanity are international baselines for journalistic work.

It is important to recognise the value of media codes not just for traditional reporters, but for anyone using the mass social media tools and who are regularly committing acts of journalism.

NOTE: This posting was corrected to note the name of the database is Accountable Journalism and to identify the organizations that put it together.

ProPublica report: Terror in Little Saigon

Many thanks to ProPublica for this story that makes it clear there was connections between events in the United States and other countries. (Terror in Little Saigon)

All together, five Vietnamese-American journalists were killed between 1981 and 1990. All worked for small publications serving the refugee population that sought shelter in the U.S. after the fall of Saigon in 1975. At least two other people were murdered as well.

FBI agents came to believe that the journalists’ killings, along with an array of fire-bombings and beatings, were terrorist acts ordered by an organization called the National United Front for the Liberation of Vietnam, a prominent group led by former military commanders from South Vietnam. Agents theorized that the Front was intimidating or executing those who defied it, FBI documents show, and even sometimes those simply sympathetic to the victorious Communists in Vietnam. But the FBI never made a single arrest for the killings or terror crimes, and the case was formally closed two decades ago.

We are all aware that in too many countries journalists are killed for doing journalism. Over and over the phrase “violence against journalists is the ultimate act of censorship.” And yet, so few Americans think this can happen in the States.

ProPublica notes how after the murder of Arizona reporter Don Bolles 1976, a group of 40 or so reporters from around the country continued his reporting on organized crime. The idea was to make a clear statement that freedom of press/expression must be defended. The reporting lead to the conviction of Bolles murder.

The ProPublica report notes the killings of Vietnamese-American journalists in Texas, California and Virginia, arsons stretching from Montreal to Orange County, Calif. and death threats to individuals, families and businesses across the country have yet to be solved. After 30 years the FBI still has not arrested anyone for the violence or terrorism, much less charged and convicted them.

The FBI quietly closed its inquiry in the late 1990s, making it one of the most significant unsolved domestic terror cases in the country.

Forces operate to intimidate journalists around the world. There is no reason to believe the United States is immune from such actions.

Journalists who are part of immigrant communities and who cover those communities especially face dangers US-born journalists may not comprehend. Reporters cannot only be threatened while in the States, but their families in their home country can be threatened. These types of threats are typical of gang operations. Organized crime operations such as MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang have been known to use these tactics against Salvadorans and Hondurans in the United States.

These are stories that are not often told in the United States. Part of the lack of reporting comes from reduced news staffs. But also, part comes from not paying attention to the local immigrant communities.

If local news organizations were more aggressive in reporting about the dynamics within the local immigrant communities, they might see more than quaint festivals from other countries. And along the way, the readers/viewers/listeners to those news organizations would learn more about conditions in other countries and the daily connections to local issues.

Terror in Little Saigon aired on Frontline on PBS Nov. 3

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